THEORY OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL

The electrostatic potential difference between two points A and B , in an electric field is defined as the work done on unit positive charge in moving it from A to B without acceleration against the electrostatic force due to the electric field.

The potential difference between points A and B in an electric field is the –ve line integral of the electric field between points A and B .

Definition: Potential difference between two points is said to be 1 Volt, if 1 Joule of work is done in moving a positive charge of 1 Coulomb from one point to the other without acceleration, against the electrostatic force due to the electric field.

Definition : Electrostatic potential at a point is said to be 1 Volt, if 1 Joule of work is done in moving a charge of 1 Coulomb from infinity to that point without acceleration, against the electric field.

Properties of equipotential surfaces:

1) No work is done in moving a charge between any two

points on an equipotential surface.

2) The electric lines of force are always perpendicular to equipotentials.

3) Equipotentials are closer in a region of stronger electric field.

4) Equipotential surfaces do not intersect each other, otherwise there will be two values of electric potential at the point of intersection, which is absurd.

Electrostatic potential energy of a system of charges is defined as the work done to bring the charges constituting the system to their locations from infinity.

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